The ketogenic diet, after it became known to the general public, immediately attracted attention and became a favorite among the stars of show business. Doctors, nutritionists, physicians and athletes have not yet reached a consensus on its effect and efficacy, but the number of adherents to this diet grows every year.
What is the ketogenic diet?
The Keto dietis a diet low in carbohydrates, high in fat and moderate in protein.
The nutrient intake of the daily diet is broken down as follows:
- up to 10% carbohydrates;
- 50-60% fat;
- 30-40% protein.
Due to the low carbohydrate content in the daily menu, the body converts lipids into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The latter enter the brain and serve as a source of energy instead of glucose. This process is called ketosis, hence the name of the diet.
The essence of the ketogenic diet
The peculiarity of the diet insists on the absolute exclusion of fast-digesting carbohydrates and most of the complex, as well as beverages containing caffeine. The diet is based on fatty meats and saturated fat.
This style of eating places the body in a state of stress in which acetone (ketone bodies) is produced dynamically. The latter, in turn, helps to suppress the appetite. In ketosis, the body is forced to rebuild itself to burn the layer of subcutaneous fat.
Initially, this nutritional method was not intended to combat obesity. It was believed that it would be an excellent aid in the treatment of certain diseases and rehabilitation in the postoperative period.
It is suitable for those who want to quickly lose some feelings of subcutaneous fat, for athletes who strive for a body of relief, and it is also used in the rehabilitation of epilepsy and oncology patients. This nutritional technique is quite a complex and delicate process.
It is based on the following principles:
- by minimizing the amount of carbohydrates consumed;
- strict control over sugar and starch entering the body;
- keep the drink balance;
- moderate physical activity;
- keep the proportion of fat in the daily diet at 60%;
- protein to fat ratio 1: 2;
- smooth entry and exit from the diet.
Based on the above principles, the basic rules are formed logically, according to which it is necessary to change the lifestyle so that adherence to the ketogenic diet is not a thoughtless and uncontrolled process that can significantly worsenthe state of the body.
So, diet rules:
- The reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the daily diet occurs during the first 8-14 days.
- The number of main meals is at least 5 per day, but 7 is already a lot.
- You should eat every 3, 5 to 4 hours.
- Keep track of the portion; it must be small.
- It is advisable to avoid snacking between "authorized" meals.
- The effect of diet is only obtained with strict adherence to it.
- It is required to increase the volume of clean water consumed up to 3 liters per day.
- For people who wish to adhere to this nutritional method, without medical indications, a consultation with a specialist is required.
- Don't worry about the amount of lipids in the daily menu, with this style of eating, they are the main source of energy for the human body.
- The intensity of physical activity should not be excessively high.
- To get into ketosis as quickly as possible, some people practice fasting. Such a radical method is possible, but only if there are no contraindications and a completely healthy and strong organism.
Dieting a ketogenic diet means avoiding certain foods and "leaning" on others. To better monitor and estimate the amount of nutrients being delivered, the following tables show desirable and prohibited foods.
List of food products Permissions:
- meat products, poultry;
- fish, seafood;
- sausages, mayonnaise;
- some types of vegetables, herbs;
- dried fruit, walnuts;
- milk, eggs;
- oils, fats;
- non-alcoholic beverages.
When a ketogenic diet is strictly prohibited:
- starchy vegetables;
- pasta and bakery products, flour;
- confectionery products;
- some types of fruits and juices;
- soft drinks and caffeinated drinks;
- sweet milk and alcoholic beverages.
Diet for the initiation and maintenance of ketosis
The essence of the ketogenic diet, as mentioned above, is that the body replaces glycolysis with lipolysis. Simply put, it "switches" from breaking down carbohydrates to breaking down fat. This process is called ketosis.
When the amount of carbohydrates consumed per day reaches a minimum of 50 g, the formation of ketones begins. From this moment, the body begins to extract energy from fat cells, respectively, the weight loss process begins.
Entering ketosis does not happen instantly. It takes almost a week for the body to switch to the desired lipolysis.
This happens in four stages:
- Stage 1. Unconditional consumption of glucose.Within half a day after the last meal produced, the body will consume glucose.
- Stage 2. Glycogen processing.After glucose, the body moves to the glycogen stores of the liver and muscles. It takes almost 48 hours.
- Stage 3. Processing of fats and proteins.Once the body has run out of carbohydrates, from which energy has returned, it goes on to the synthesis of muscle fibers and fatty acids. This is the most difficult step on the road to ketone formation.
- Stage 4. Fat consumption.The ketosis itself. When the body is used to a minimum of carbohydrates and the protein burning process slows down, the consumption of fatty acids begins.
The diet for active fat burning and consequently the maintenance of ketosis is based on the principle of the absolute advantage of fat in the menu.
- fats - from 60 to 75%;
- proteins: 25 to 35%;
- carbohydrates: up to 10%.
Please note thatshould not stop counting calories.The ketogenic diet, like other nutritional practices, requires nutrient management. Especially if the objective of observing it is to lose weight.
To calculate the required amount of nutrients per day, you can use a simple calculation: 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight, and carbohydrates and fat are assigned as a percentage.
For example, if a person weighs 80 kg, then 80 g of protein, 300 g of lipids and 20 g of carbon are needed per day. If during the transition period (first week) you feel weak, then you can increase the number of grams of the last nutrient, but not more than 50 units.
There is no fundamental gender difference in formulating the right diet. Basically, if you do not take into account the type of ketogenic diet, the menu of men and women differs in the amount of protein consumed. For men, more nutrients are needed to maintain muscle mass.
Sample weekly ketogenic diet menu
A rough budget menu for men looks like this:
|1||First:tortilla - 80 g, veal cutlet - 120 g, tea - 120 g
Second:chicken breast - 130 g, vegetable salad- 130 g, jelly - 230 g
Third:cottage cheese - 160 g
Fourth:baked fish with herbs - 120 g, brown rice - 80 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 200 g
|2||First:whole grain rice pudding - 160 g, toast, tea - 120 g
Second:beef borscht - 240 g, zrazy chicken - 80 g, cabbage salad - 80 g, gelatin - 150 g
Third:protein shake - 300 g
Fourth:seafood salad - 180 g, toast with cheese - 70 g, tea - 200 g
|3||First:Scrambled eggs with ham - 150 g, croutons - 15 g, tea - 120 g
Second:chicken soup - 180 g, medallions ofbeef - 90 g, vegetable salad - 140 g, tea - 180 g
Third:cheese - 80 g
Fourth:Baked mushrooms - 120 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:kefir without sugar - 230 g
|4||First:Steamed fish cakes - 160 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, tea - 120 g
Second:borscht - 270 g, saladmeat - 110 g, gelatin - 100 g
Third:tortilla - 120 g
Fourth:red fish - 110 g, toast with cheese - 60 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 250 g
|5||First:hard-boiled eggs - 3 pieces, baked fillet - 120 g, vegetable salad - 110 g, tea - 120 g
Second:souppuree - 260 g, meat salad - 130 g, jelly - 200 g
Third:rosehip tincture - 250 g, sponge cake - 20 g
Fourth:baked fish - 180 g, vegetable salad - 120 g, tea - 200 g
|6||First:omelette - 120 g, cottage cheese - 110 g, tea - 120 g
Second:fish soup - 260 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, chicken cutlets - 80 g, tea - 200 g
Third:Green apple puree - 70 g
Fourth:seafood salad - 160 g, boiled chicken - 110 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 200 g
|7||First:casserole with mushrooms - 180 g, croutons - 10 g, tea - 200 g
Second:chicken soup - 160 g, veal cutlets- 160 g, vegetable salad - 80 g, gelatin - 200 g
Third:cottage cheese - 80 g
Fourth:boiled fish - 130 g, vegetable salad - 110 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:kefir without sugar - 180 g
Sample menu for women:
|1||First:omelette - 130 g, meat salad - 130 g, tea - 120 g
Second:beef broth - 210 g, stewed brown ricewith vegetables - 180 g
Third:cheese - 60 g
Fourth:baked fish - 150 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:Fermented baked milk - 250 g
|2||First:fish cutlet - 80 g, toasted with ham - 75 g, rosehip tea - 130 g
Second:borscht - 200 g, fish cutlet - 75 g, meat salad - 125 g
Third:avocado - 50 g
Fourth:beef entrecote - 180 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:kefir without sugar - 230 g
|3||First:scrambled eggs with ham - 80 g, salad with cucumber and eggs - 120 g, tea - 120 g
Second:poultry soup - 210g, rabbit cutlet - 110 g, fresh vegetables - 80 g
Third:tortilla - 160 g
Fourth:baked fish - 90 g, potato and pumpkin pancakes - 130 g, jelly - 150 g
Fifth:kefir - 230 g
|4||First:hard-boiled eggs - 3 pieces, meat salad - 160 g, walnuts - 30 g
Second:fish soup - 230 g, medallions ofmeat - 80 g, vegetable salad - 110 g
Third:cheese - 60 g
Fourth:veal pate - 60 g, cucumber salad - 120 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:Fermented baked milk - 250 g
|5||First:turkey fillet - 120 g, meat salad - 110 g, green tea - 120 g
Second:vegetable puree soup - 170g, baked fish with brown rice - 170 g
Third:walnuts –30 g
Fourth:fried mushrooms with ham and vegetables - 230 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:green tea - 220 g
|6||First:cottage cheese - 130 g, rosehip tea - 130 g
Second:chicken broth - 130 g, pork chop in cheese mass - 120 g
Third:avocado - 50 g
Fourth:sausages, ham, tea - 220 g
Fifth:kefir - 230 g
|7||First:omelette - 120 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, green tea - 120 g
Second:mushroom soup with meat - 160 g, fried fish - 80 g, vegetable salad - 100 g
Third:cheese - 80 g
Fourth:cabbage rolls - 180 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:green tea - 200 g
This type of diet is not "hungry", so choosing and combining dishes is not difficult. Here are some recipes that are pretty easy to make and are still in ketosis.
Ketogenic special bread
- eggs - 3 squirrels;
- Almond flour - 0. 25 cups
- water - 0, 25 cups;
- chopped banana - 50 g;
- baking powder - 10 g;
- apple cider vinegar - 10 g;
- sea salt - 5 g;
- sesame seeds (optional).
- mix flour, banana and baking powder;
- boil the water, pour into a container with the dry ingredients;
- add protein and vinegar;
- mix the dough with a mixer for 2-3 minutes, until it becomes suitable for sculpting;
- to form future loaves in any shape;
- place on a greased baking sheet;
- sprinkle with sesame seeds on top and place in the oven;
- Bake at 200 degrees on the bottom rack for about an hour;
- readiness is determined by touching the bottom of the bar;
- finished bread makes an "empty" sound.
Baked salmon with asparagus
- salmon (fillet) - 1000 g;
- asparagus - 130 g;
- mushrooms - 250 g;
- onions - 40 g;
- garlic - 3 cloves;
- soy sauce - 300 ml;
- sesame oil - 10 g;
- butter - 20 g;
- basil - 3 years
- mix soy sauce, basil and garlic;
- cut the fish fillet into pieces, put it in an airtight bag, pour over the resulting sauce with spices;
- and marinate in the refrigerator for 60 minutes;
- preheat the oven to 180 degrees;
- after time, put in the oven a baking sheet covered with aluminum foil with fish and asparagus;
- cook for 20 minutes;
- during this time, fry the mushrooms and onions in a pan;
- then pour this mixture over the cooked fish;
- Bake for another 10 minutes.
Chicken casserole with cheese and olives
- chicken (breasts) - 700 g;
- pesto sauce - 90 g;
- cream (whipped) - 400 ml;
- olives (pickled) - 200 g;
- feta cheese - 250 g;
- garlic -1 slice;
- oil for frying;
- oil (olive) - 40 g;
- salt (marine) - 10 g.
- rinse the meat, cut it into pieces, salt;
- fry on both sides until golden brown;
- mix the cream and pesto in a bowl;
- place chicken in baking dish;
- top with minced garlic, olives and cheese;
- Pour cream sauce on top;
- bake in the oven at 200 degrees for half an hour;
- when the edges of the plate get sandy, you can take out - the casserole is ready.
- beef - 2 pieces, boneless;
- onion - 1 piece;
- garlic - 1 segment;
- tomato - 2 pieces. ;
- vinegar (apple cider) - 50 g;
- oil (olive) –30 g;
- ground ginger - 7 g;
- salt (marine) - 2 g.
- rinse meat, make shallow cuts on top of fillets;
- peel the onion, cut it into small cubes;
- Chop the tomatoes into cubes;
- in a preheated pan greased with olive oil, place the fillets;
- brown on both sides over medium heat;
- then add the tomato cubes, onion and crushed garlic to the meat;
- fry, stirring occasionally, for 5-7 minutes;
- put the ginger in a separate container, add salt, pour the vinegar;
- add the resulting sauce to the meat, mix;
- set fire to the lowest intensity;
- cook under a closed lid until liquid evaporates;
- sprinkle with herbs when serving.
The effectiveness of the ketogenic diet
As already noted, there is no consensus on the effectiveness of this nutritional method. The ketogenic diet is controversial. It has contraindications, advantages and disadvantages. Not suitable for everyone.
But one thing's for sure: Subject to proper nutrition rules and principles, a person on a ketogenic diet is "doomed" to lose 1 to 3 kg of weight per week. It is widely used by celebrities to get rid of extra inches, athletes to create a relief body, and is also prescribed for certain diseases.
To increase the effectiveness of the diet, it is advisable to follow some rules:
- Choose a complex of vitamins and mineralsto help the body.
- It is mandatory to undergo a medical examination,to make sure there are no contraindications to this style of eating. The ketogenic diet, except in some cases, requires "iron" health.
- Please carefully consider the possibility of recalls of certain products.If it is not possible to limit yourself, for example, in the consumption of bread or pasta, then it is better to choose a different nutritional method so as not to put yourself in an even greater state of stress.
- In the first week or two, while the metabolic process is rebuilding, try not to carry the lifestyle into fanatical activityand do not plan too high physical and mental stress. When the body enters a ketotic state, there is unlikely to be an increase in athletic and mental performance.
- It takes some time and skill to get into the habit of cooking properly while still keto.Therefore, you should try to plan your day so that there is no opportunity for an "unauthorized" snack.
- To minimize the negative effects of the diet, it is necessary to remember to include it in the diet rich in fiber.They improve and normalize the digestive tract.
- It is unlikely that the unpleasant smell of acetone can be avoided, so it is recommended to double your intake of plain water.A correct water balance is the key to effective weight loss.
- Maintaining electrolyte balance is equally important in the process of shedding unnecessary inches of body fat.Slightly salty foods will not only improve the taste of dishes, but will also have a positive effect on well-being.
Depending on the tasks (be it weight loss, drying, weight gain, etc. ), the necessary diet option is selected.
Classic (standard or basic)
- This type is considered the most common and simple diet.
- It is characterized by a high content of fat in the diet, medium - protein and a minimal amount of carbohydrates.
- Recommended for people with little or no physical activity.
- This type involves adding carbohydrates to the diet, but at certain times and in a certain amount.
- The so-called carb loading occurs on training days.
- To increase endurance and intensity, coals are consumed during training hours (before and after training).
- On rest days, to maintain ketosis, the amount of carbohydrates is kept to a minimum (0. 5 or 1 g per kg of body weight), the level of fat is slightly reduced so as not to exceed the caloric content ofthe daily diet.
- This is the "advanced" option. This involves a periodic "feeding" of carbohydrates.
- The pause between carbohydrate "sets" depends on your exercise goals, goals, and intensity.
- At the same time, the weight of fats in the diet decreases, proteins increase and 7-10 g of charcoal fall on 1 kg of own weight.
- Download duration is 8 to 36 hours.
- The intervals can be increased, taking into account the state of the body.
- Recommended for people with a lot of physical activity who feel weak due to lack of carbohydrates.
- those who want to lose weight, dry up, gain muscle mass;
- for epilepsy;
- for oncological diseases.
- This eating technique is not "hunger". The feeling of hunger is extremely rare.
- Shifting metabolism through ketosis promotes faster weight loss compared to other methods.
- There is no clear order of menu formation, the dishes are quite varied. You just need to follow the nutrient intake formula.
- Proven the value of following a ketogenic diet for cancer, epilepsy and other diseases.
- Foods on the ketogenic diet whitelist have a low glycemic index. Eating them in food has a positive therapeutic effect and helps in treating acne.
- Very low probability of losing muscle mass along with a high percentage of subcutaneous fat burning.
Along with the positive effects of following the keto diet, this technique is not without its drawbacks:
- Diet imbalance.
- Odor of acetone from the mouth, from the skin.
- When entering ketosis, you often feel nauseous, tired, lethargic, and have trouble concentrating.
- There are contraindications.
- Frequent constipation (or other intestinal problems) due to lack of essential vegetables and fruits in the diet.
The ketogenic diet
This nutritional technique was originally invented for the treatment of epileptic seizures in adults and children.
Doctors have discovered that ketogens are formed during the processing of fat in the body, and it is they who have the ability to reduce the frequency of seizures in children and adults with epilepsy.
Since the diet is unbalanced and fatty foods can lead to liver and kidney problems, experts are skeptical of this eating style. In medical practice, there are an equal number of positive and extremely negative results from his appointment.
The decision to use the ketogenic diet for epileptics is made only by a specialist. Treatment by technique is carried out strictly under the supervision of a doctor!
Studies have shown that for people with cancer, the combination of classic therapy and a ketogenic diet reduces the risk of metastasis and disease recurrence by 75%.
Unlike patients who tend to eat, followers of the ketogenic diet feel better, the body recovers faster, and treatment has a positive trend. The state of ketosis deprives cancer cells of energy, starves them, significantly improving the effectiveness of radiation and chemotherapy.
As stated above, the ketogenic diet has several contraindications.
You cannot stick to it when:
- breastfeeding and pregnancy;
- high cholesterol levels;
- diabetes mellitus;
- the presence of diseases of the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, heart;
- lipid digestion disorder;
- hormonal alterations.
The positive effect of this eating style manifests itself in different ways, depending on the individual body. Depending on the type of diet chosen, it is likely that during the first month you will lose 5 to 10 kg.
To save the result, you must follow some simple rules:
- In order to maintain the result and not enter the body in a state of stress after the end of the keto diet, it is necessary to come out of this diet gradually.
- Do not pounce on prohibited foods in the diet: the risk of regaining the lost kilos in double the volume is too high.
- The amount of fat in the diet needs to be reduced a littleand 5 g of carbohydrates should be added daily.
- With proper adherence to a ketogenic diet and regular medical examination, it is possible to improve not only external data by eliminating excess weight, but also radically change the quality of life in one directionpositive.
Someone has a result in the second week, while someone has to wait up to three months. This variation over time does not indicate the ineffectiveness of the diet; in all probability, an adjustment of the proportion of nutrients in the diet is required.